If you wish to change the payment information on your invoice you go to "Settings", "Company settings", "Invoices" and "Invoice payment information".
You can only record a payment against an invoice, not against a quote or a customer. If you work in the web service click on the "+" at the bottom of the screen. When in the app you open the invoice and select "Payments".
When you have registered a payment for an invoice you can send a receipt by selecting "Print" or "Email" and then "Receipt".